Announcing the restrictions during an emergency statement to Holyrood earlier today (4 January), First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said that the new laws will require people to both stay at and work from home where possible.
The lockdown will go on until at least the end of January.
One crucial area of difference between the new lockdown arrangements and those introduced at the onset of the pandemic in March last year is that the Scottish Government does not appear to be 'discouraging' hospitality businesses from remaining open for takeaway this time.
Guidance released this afternoon states: "Takeaways can still operate as normal, providing food is sold for consumption off premises."
Most hospitality businesses in Scotland have been closed since Boxing Day (26 December), when Level 4 restrictions were imposed across all mainland regions.
However, island areas - including Orkney and Shetland - have remained subject to Level 3 restrictions, meaning restaurants, cafes, pubs and bars can open indoors and outdoors for the consumption of food and non-alcoholic drinks, subject to a 6pm curfew.
Sturgeon added that those areas will remain in Level 3 for now, but be monitored carefully.
Other restrictions set to introduced across the mainland under the new lockdown include the scrapping of the current one-metre rule for workplace canteens, meaning they will have to ensure that employees sit two metres or more apart.
Lockdown restrictions in England are also expected to be tightened, with Prime Minister Boris Johnson scheduled to address the nation in a televised broadcast at 8pm this evening (4 January).